||Singh N, Thiagalingam P, Hussain J, Shah V, Edwards N, Lui E, Nesrallah G, Lok CE, Walele AA, Novak M, James CE, Mucsi I.
||Rationale & objective: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported to experience profound psychosocial distress. Other work has established that patients with CKD from marginalized populations (including individuals who on the basis of race often face racism and related discrimination, termed \"racialization\") experience health care inequities. Given limited information on the intersection of these 2 phenomena, we assessed the association of psychosocial distress with racialized status and immigrant status in Canadians with advanced CKD.
Study design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data.
Setting & participants: 536 patients with advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate<30mL/min/1.73m2, with or without kidney replacement therapy) from multiple clinical centers in Toronto.
Exposure: Racialized status (individuals who identify as Asian or as African, Caribbean, or Black Canadian), immigrant status, and combined immigrant-racialized status.
Outcome: Psychosocial distress, defined as the presence of depression, anxiety, or social difficulties (ie, a score of≥10 points on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, or Social Distress 16 scales, respectively).
Analytical approach: The independent associations of racialized status and immigrant status with psychosocial distress, depression, anxiety, and social difficulties were examined using univariable- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression.
Results: Mean age of the 536 participants was 57±16 (SD) years, 62% were male, and 45% were immigrants. Of the sample, 58% were White, 22% were African, Caribbean, or Black Canadian, and 20% were Asian. Psychosocial distress was present in 36% of participants (depression in 19%, anxiety in 12%, and social difficulties in 31%). To assess the combined impact of racialized and immigrant status, we created a variable with mutually exclusive categories: White nonimmigrant, racialized nonimmigrant, White immigrant, and racialized immigrant participants. In our final multivariable-adjusted model, compared with White nonimmigrant participants, racialized immigrant participants were more likely to have psychosocial distress (OR, 2.96 [95% CI, 1.81-4.81]), depression (OR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.05-3.34]), and social difficulties (OR, 3.36 [95% CI, 2.03-5.57]). Overall similar associations were seen for racialized nonimmigrants and for White immigrants.
Limitations: Convenience sample; small subgroups; combined exposure variable grouping Asian and African, Caribbean, and Black participants together; lack of data about mechanisms.
Conclusions: Both racialized and immigrant status based on self-report of demographic characteristics were associated with psychosocial distress among patients with advanced CKD. These patients may benefit from culturally competent psychosocial support.
Plain-language summary: Psychosocial distress is frequent in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and impacts quality of life and clinical outcomes. Psychosocial distress may be especially scarring in people who are racialized (marginalized on account of their membership in a particular racial group) and/or who are immigrants. We assessed the association of psychosocial distress with racialized and immigrant status in Canadians with advanced chronic kidney disease. Among 536 participants from multiple medical centers in Toronto, we found that racialized and immigrant participants were more likely to have psychosocial distress, depression, and social difficulties compared with White nonimmigrant participants. This is likely related to the multiple intersectional challenges, including experience with racism and discrimination that racialized immigrant patients may face. Further studies are needed to elucidate the specific factors that contribute to more distress. The potential impact of culturally competent and safe support for these patients will also need to be studied.