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Title: Prolonged warm ischemia time leads to severe renal dysfunction of donation-after-cardiac death kidney grafts
Authors: Urbanellis P, Mazilescu L, Kollmann D, Linares-Cervantes I, Kaths JM, Ganesh S, Oquendo F, Sharma M, Goto T, Noguchi Y, John R, Konvalinka A, Mucsi I, Ghanekar A, Bagli D, Robinson LA, Selzner M.
Year: 2021
Journal: Prolonged warm ischemia time leads to severe renal dysfunction of donation-after-cardiac death kidney grafts
Abstract* Kidney transplantation with grafts procured after donation-after-cardiac death (DCD) has led to an increase in incidence of delayed graft function (DGF). It is thought that the warm ischemic (WI) insult encountered during DCD procurement is the cause of this finding, although few studies have been designed to definitely demonstrate this causation in a transplantation setting. Here, we use a large animal renal transplantation model to study the effects of prolonged WI during procurement on post-transplantation renal function. Kidneys from 30 kg-Yorkshire pigs were procured following increasing WI times of 0 min (Heart-Beating Donor), 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min (n = 3-6 per group) to mimic DCD. Following 8 h of static cold storage and autotransplantation, animals were followed for 7-days. Significant renal dysfunction (SRD), resembling clinical DGF, was defined as the development of oliguria < 500 mL in 24 h from POD3-4 along with POD4 serum potassium > 6.0 mmol/L. Increasing WI times resulted in incremental elevation of post-operative serum creatinine that peaked later. DCD120min grafts had the highest and latest elevation of serum creatinine compared to all groups (POD5: 19.0 ± 1.1 mg/dL, p < 0.05). All surviving animals in this group had POD4 24 h urine output < 500 cc (mean 235 ± 172 mL) and elevated serum potassium (7.2 ± 1.1 mmol/L). Only animals in the DCD120min group fulfilled our criteria of SRD (p = 0.003), and their renal function improved by POD7 with 24 h urine output > 500 mL and POD7 serum potassium < 6.0 mmol/L distinguishing this state from primary non-function. In a transplantation survival model, this work demonstrates that prolonging WI time similar to that which occurs in DCD conditions contributes to the development of SRD that resembles clinical DGF.
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