We assessed the socio-demographic correlates of snoring and also the patterns of health behaviour and co-morbidity associated with different types of snoring in the Hungarian population. We wanted to study whether different types of snoring are associated with high-risk health behaviour, chronic illnesses, daytime consequences of poor sleep, and with frequent accidents compared with non-snoring individuals.
This is a cross-sectional study. Interviews were carried out in the homes of 12,643 people. This was the largest nationally representative study in Central Europe about health behaviour. In the Athens Insomnia Scale, questions about snoring and sleep behaviour, life-style factors and health behaviour, as well as questions on their history and current medical treatment were included in the questionnaire.
Thirty-seven percent of males and 21% of females reported loud snoring with breathing pauses. We found a significant increasing trend for the consumption of alcohol and coffee as well as smoking among non-snorers, habitual snorers and loud snorers, respectively. In an ordinal regression model male gender, the presence of smoking, the presence of three or more co-morbid conditions and alcohol consumption were independent predictors of snoring (OR [95% CI], 1.99 [1.85-2.1], 1.76 [1.60-1.92], 1.45 [1.30-1.62] and 1.22 [1.04-1.43], respectively, P < 0.001) after controlling for multiple socio-demographic and clinical variables. The frequency of accidents was higher in the loud snoring group than among non-snoring individuals (24% vs 17%, P < 0.0001).
Snoring is common in the Hungarian adult population. Snoring, especially loud snoring with breathing pauses, is strongly associated with high-risk health behaviour, higher co-morbidity and a higher frequency of accidents.