Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) is one of the most common sleep disorders in kidney transplant recipients, however its long-term consequences have only rarely been investigated. Here, we hypothesized that the presence of OSA would be associated with higher risk of mortality and faster decline of graft function in kidney transplant recipients. In a prospective cohort study 100 prevalent kidney transplant recipients who underwent one-night polysomnography at baseline and were followed for a median 75 months. Generalized linear mixed-effects models and Cox regression models were used to assess the association between OSA and the rate of progression of chronic kidney disease(CKD) and mortality. The estimated slopes of estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) in patients with and without OSA were compared using a two-stage model of eGFR change including only OSA as a variable. In this model patients with OSA (eGFR versus time was -0.93 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/yr(95%CI:-1.75 to-0.11) had a similar slope as compared to patients without OSA(eGFR versus time was -1.24 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/yr(95%CI: -1.67 to -0.81). In unadjusted Cox proportional regression analyses OSA was not associated with higher all-cause mortality risk (Hazard Ratio(HR) = 1.20; 95% Confidence Interval(CI): 0.50-2.85). No association was found between the presence of OSA and the rate of progression of CKD or all-cause mortality in prevalent kidney transplant recipients.