Abstract Sleep disorders are also considered as significant chronic disorders, as their physiological and psycho-social consequences are well documented. Restless legs syndrome has high prevalence, as it occurs in 5-10 % of the general population. Since clinical presentation is not well appreciated by many of the health care professionals, only a small proportion of the patients with restless legs syndrome is diagnosed and treated. The consequences of disease, however, are not negligible. The majority of the patients suffer from insomnia, impaired daytime functioning and quality of life. Although, restless legs syndrome is frequently characterized as a sleep disorder, it does not only influence sleep but also the daytime functioning of the patients. Additionally, restless legs syndrome causes not only subjective complaints and sleep disruption, but it is also associated with cardiovascular disorders.