Periodic limb movements in sleep are associated with stroke and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with renal failure.

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Journal of Sleep Research 2012 3 21 pages: 297-307

Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) is prevalent among dialysed patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of this disease in a sample of transplanted and waiting-list haemodialysed patients. One hundred transplanted and 50 waiting-list patients underwent polysomnography. Moderate and severe diseases were defined as periodic limb movements in sleep index (PLMSI) higher than 15 and 25 events h(-1), respectively. The 10-year coronary heart disease risk was estimated for all patients using the Framingham Score. Moreover, the 10-year estimated risk of stroke was calculated according to the modified version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. PLMS was present in 27% of the transplanted and 42% of the waiting-list group (P = 0.094); the proportion of severe disease was twice as high in waiting-list versus transplanted patients (32 versus 16%, P = 0.024). Patients with severe disease had a higher 10-year estimated risk of stroke in the transplanted group [10 (7-17) versus 5 (4-10); P = 0.002] and a higher 10-year coronary heart disease risk in both the transplanted [18 (8-22) versus 7 (4-14); P = 0.002], and the waiting-list groups [11 (5-18) versus 4 (1-9); P = 0.032]. In multivariable linear regression models the PLMSI was associated independently with the Framingham cardiovascular and cerebrovascular scores after adjusting for important covariables. Higher PLMSI is an independent predictor of higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk score in patients with chronic kidney disease. Severe PLMS is less frequent in kidney transplant recipients compared to waiting-list dialysis patients.
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