Abstract It is has been widely studied and proved that obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke. It is also important to be aware that, due to sleep apnea, hypersomnia increases the risk of accidents and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric complications (cognitive impairments, depression, memory and concentration problems, quality of life decreasing). Sleep apnea has several social and economical consequences. Family physicians have an important role in screening and recognizing sleep apnea. Effective screening methods could prevent severe, irreversible complications and could improve patients' quality of life. Family physicians should collaborate with a specialist from sleep laboratory in the field of the patients' examination, treatment and care.