Abstract Insomnia and poor self-perceived sleep are very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Poor sleep is associated with fatigue, sleepiness, impaired daytime functioning, impaired health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. Many illness- and treatment-related factors (metabolic changes, inflammation, altered sleep regulatory mechanisms, symptoms and complications of CKD, comorbid conditions, medications, and renal replacement therapies) may disturb sleep and contribute to the high prevalence of insomnia in this patient population. Accordingly, the approach to both diagnosing and treating this condition is quite complex. Although sleep-related problems are very important for patients with CKD, they largely are under-recognized and undertreated. Very few intervention trials provide an evidence base to support treatment decisions in this particular patient population. With this review we hope to increase awareness of insomnia among professionals involved in the management of patients with CKD and to provide guidance in recognizing and treating this important condition.