||Objective: Leptin is a hormone made by adipocytes and associated with hypertension, inflammation, and coronary artery disease. Low serum leptin level was associated with higher risk of death in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Little is known about the association of serum leptin with outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.
Design: Prospective prevalent cohort.
Setting and subject: We collected sociodemographic and clinical parameters, medical and transplant history, and laboratory data of 979 prevalent kidney transplant recipients. Associations between serum leptin level and death with a functioning graft, all-cause death, and death-censored graft loss over a 6-year follow-up period were examined in survival models.
Results: Serum leptin levels showed moderate negative correlation with eGFR (R = -0.21, P < .001) and positive correlations with BMI (R = 0.48, P < .001) and C-reactive protein (R = 0.20, P < .001). Each 10 ng/mL higher serum leptin level was associated with 7% lower risk of death with functioning graft (hazard ratio [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI]), 0.93 (0.87-0.99)), and this association persisted after adjustment for confounders: HR (95% CI), 0.90 (0.82-0.99). Similar associations were found with all-cause death as outcome. The association between serum leptin level and risk of graft loss was nonlinear, and only low serum leptin level was associated with higher risk of graft loss.
Conclusions: In prevalent kidney transplant recipients, lower serum leptin was an independent predictor of death.